Human Origins Leiden

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Human Origins Leiden

Streams as Entanglement of Nature and Culture: European Upper Paleolithic River Systems and Their Role as Features of Spatial Organization

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Authors: Shumon T. Hussain & Harald Floss

Journal: J Archaeol Method Theory


Large river valleys have long been seen as important factors to shape the mobility, communication, and exchange of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers. However, rivers have been debated as either natural entities people adapt and react to or as cultural and meaningful entities people experience and interpret in different ways. Here, we attempt to integrate both perspectives. Building on theoretical work from various disciplines, we discuss the relationship between biophysical river properties and sociocultural river semantics and suggest that understanding a river’s persona is central to evaluating its role in spatial organization. By reviewing the literature and analyzing European Upper Paleolithic site distribution and raw material transfer patterns in relation to river catchments, we show that the role of prominent rivers varies considerably over time. Both ecological and cultural factors are crucial to explaining these patterns. Whereas the Earlier Upper Paleolithic record displays a general tendency toward conceiving rivers as mobility guidelines, the spatial consolidation process after the colonization of the European mainland is paralleled by a trend of conceptualizing river regimes as frontiers, separating archaeological entities, regional groups, or local networks. The Late Upper Paleolithic Magdalenian, however, is characterized again by a role of rivers as mobility and communication vectors. Tracing changing patterns in the role of certain river regimes through time thus contributes to our growing knowledge of human spatial behavior and helps to improve our understanding of dynamic and mutually informed human-environment interactions in the Paleolithic.


Neanderthals may have deliberately sourced manganese dioxide for use in fire making, 50,000 years ago in France

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Neanderthals may have deliberately sourced manganese dioxide for use in fire making, 50,000 years ago in France


Several Neanderthal sites in France have yielded large numbers of small black 'blocs'. The usual interpretation is that these 'manganese oxides' were collected for their colouring properties and used in body decoration, potentially for symbolic expression. Neanderthals habitually used fire and if they needed black material for decoration, soot and charcoal were readily available, whereas obtaining manganese oxides would have incurred considerably higher subsistence costs.

A series of compositional analyses has led scientists from Leiden University and Delft University of Technology to infer that late Neanderthals at Pech-de-l'Azé I (SW France) were deliberately selecting manganese dioxide, 50,000 years ago. Statistically designed combustion experiments and thermo-gravimetric (TGA) measurements demonstrate that manganese dioxide reduces wood's auto-ignition temperature and substantially increases the rate of char combustion; in other words manganese dioxide facilitates fire making. Archaeological evidence for both fire places and the conversion of manganese dioxide blocs to powder supports the hypothesis that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l'Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making. Fire would have provided important subsistence benefits but its social and symbolic significance should not be overlooked.

The selection and use of manganese dioxide for fire making is unknown from the ethnographic record of recent hunter gatherers. This unusual behaviour holds potential significance for our understanding of Neanderthal cognitive capabilities through the extent of their knowledge and insights. The actions involved in the preferential selection of a specific, non-combustible material and its use to make fire are not obvious nor intuitive. The knowledge and insights suggested by Neanderthal selection of manganese dioxide and use in fire-making are surprising and qualitatively different from the expertise commonly associated with Neanderthals.

Authors: Peter J. Heyes, Konstantinos Anastasakis, Wiebren de Jong, Annelies van Hoesel, Wil Roebroeks, and Marie Soressi : Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals Scientific Reports | 6:22159 | DOI: 10.1038/srep22159:

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The project was a collaboration between researchers at the Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University and at the Faculty 3mE, Department Process and Energy, Delft University of Technology (both in The Netherlands) and brought together expertise in Palaeolithic archaeology, combustion research and materials science analytical techniques. Interestingly, whilst Neanderthals may have sourced and used manganese dioxide in fire making 50,000 years ago, manganese dioxide has important uses today in energy storage (batteries) and potentially in future clean energy production systems.

The authors acknowledge support from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO (Spinoza Grant 28-548) and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Academy Professor Prize program) and from the Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (Amersfoort, NL) in the form of access to equipment and assistance in analyses.

Dr Peter Heyes, the first author of the paper, carried out a main part of the research in the setting of a Master's programme in Palaeolithic Archaeology at Leiden University. Heyes, with a PhD in chemistry, entered the programme as a mature student and given his background, was challenged by his supervisor with researching potential functional uses of “manganese” for prehistoric hunter-gatherer groups. Commenting on practical implications of the paper, Heyes suggests:

“We don’t know how Neanderthals made fire but given their skills with lithics, we might start with an assumption they used sparks and tinder. We don’t bring it out particularly in the paper but manganese dioxide added to wood shavings or other tinder increases the efficiency with which the tinder captures a spark and lights. Starting a fire using sparks from flint without a metal striker is not as easy as it may seem but manganese dioxide has a significant beneficial effect.

Woodsmen typically keep a supply of naturally air-dried wood shavings or other tinder to help light fires. From the evidence of the wear patterns on their lithics, Neanderthals cut and whittled wood. If we assume Neanderthals could keep a supply of air-dried wood shavings, then once they had a small fire established aided by manganese dioxide, it could have been built with twigs and small braches. The growing fire would have tolerated more freshly cut ‘green’ wood.

Finding evidence to support a view on Neanderthal management of wood fuel resources is a very remote possibility. It could nevertheless have been an important aspect of subsistence. If Neanderthals could devote time and resources to collecting manganese dioxide for fire making, it is perhaps not unreasonable to assume they could manage wood fuel resources effectively”.


Jean-Jacques Hublin Lecture Series in January 2016

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Jean-Jacques Hublin Lecture Series in January



The course “An Introduction to Palaeoanthropology” taught by Prof. dr. Jean-Jacques Hublin (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology) will take place 19-22 January 2016, in room F1.02 of the Van Steenis building.


This is a 5 ECTS course for Human Origins track RMA students and an elective for MA students, provided they have an adequate background (e.g. successfully completed Palaeolithic Europe: An Introduction). After attending the lectures, students are required to submit a 3000 word (max) scholarly piece on one of the research topics presented during the course.


Besides those following the course for ECTS, all other students (MA and BA3) and colleagues are invited to sit in on the lectures, provided there is room. Please email Andrew Sorensen ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it "> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) if you intend to participate, and indicate if you wish to acquire the ECTS. Please see the e-Prospectus for the course reading list, here.


The course will be structured as follows:


Day 1: (January 19, 14-17 hrs)

  • Outline of the course

  • The skeletal material and it significance. New approaches to the fossil record (virtual paleoanthropology, microstructures, isotopic studies, paleogenetics).

  • Geological timeframe. Dating the past. Reconstructing the Pleistocene climates.


Day 2: (January 20, 10-12 hrs, 14-17 hrs)

  • Evolutionary theory. Classification and Nomenclature:

  • Overview of Human Evolution.

  • The emergence of the genus Homo

  • The first Eurasian hominins


Day 3: (January 21, 10-12 hrs, 14-17 hrs)


The Neandertals and their contemporaries 1:

  • Historical background

  • Anatomy, Paleogenetics

  • Evolutionary history

  • Growth and development 1 (Life history theory)


Day 4: (January 22, 10-12 hrs, 14-17 hrs)


Neandertals and their contemporaries 2:

  • Growth and development 2 (brain development)

  • Modern Origins

  • Out of Africa

  • Neandertal Extinction



Paléoanthropologie du genre Homo




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